How far inland can a storm surge go? Everyone knows a storm surge is an extremely destructive and perilous element of a hurricane or tropical cyclone.
It happens when strong winds and reduced atmospheric pressure cause seawater to surge toward the shore, leading to a sudden increase in sea level.
But, the question is, “How far inland can a hurricane storm surge go?”
A 20-ft storm surge can go up to 40 miles inland, but eventually, it depends on the storm’s intensity, and the coastal topography, among other factors.
More about Storm Surges
Storm surges can be devastating, depending on how far inland they go.
Coastal areas can be overwhelmed by storm surges, resulting in devastating floods and extensive damage.
A storm surge occurs when a storm causes water levels to rise higher than the expected tide.
However, storm surge, being a disparity in water levels, lacks a specific reference point.
What is the Reason behind Storm Surge?
The primary cause of storm surges is the powerful winds generated by hurricanes or tropical storms. The storm’s low pressure has a negligible impact.
The wind flow surrounding the eye of a hurricane (shown on the left) creates a breeze on the surface of the ocean.
This results in a vertical movement within the ocean (depicted on the right).
In the ocean’s vast depths, the natural flow remains undisturbed, with minimal signs of storm surge.
When Does It Change?
As the hurricane approaches the coast, it encounters shallower waters and the vertical circulation in the ocean is disrupted by the ocean bottom.
The water is unable to drain, forcing it to rise and move towards the land. Typically, a storm surge happens when winds are blowing toward the land.
Fact: The most significant surge typically happens close to the "radius of maximum winds," where the hurricane's strongest winds are concentrated.
How Far Inland Can a Storm Surge Go?
The powerful storm surge has the ability to reach far beyond the coastline.
In some regions of southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas, the surge from Hurricane Ike traveled inland for approximately 30 miles.
Storm surge poses a threat to all areas along the East and Gulf coasts of the United States.
The heights of storm surges can vary depending on the intensity of the hurricane, typically ranging from 3 to 25+ feet.
Here is more about some historical events:
|Storm||Storm Surge Height||Inland Penetration|
|Hurricane Camille (1969)||24.6ft||About 20 miles|
|Hurricane Sandy (2012)||14ft||About 10 miles|
|Hurricane Ike (2008)||20ft||About 30 miles|
|Hurricane Katrina (2005)||19ft||About 12 miles|
Fact: The extent of damage caused by the storm surge can differ based on the surrounding terrain.
How Far Inland Can a Hurricane Storm Surge Go?
The magnitude of a hurricane storm surge is influenced by various factors.
Accurate forecasting and preparation are crucial due to the varying potential reach of a hurricane storm surge from one storm to another.
You have to consider various factors to judge how far inland a storm surge can go.
Historical Storm Surge Events
Previous hurricanes offer valuable perspectives on the potential extent of storm surges.
Communities can evaluate their vulnerability and take necessary steps to reduce risks by utilizing historical data and storm surge records.
Storm Surge Evacuation Zones
Storm surge evacuation zones are commonly established by coastal communities, taking into account historical data and storm surge modeling.
These zones mark areas prone to surge flooding, and residents living there are advised to evacuate when hurricanes are approaching.
Coastal Protection Measures
The implementation of coastal engineering and infrastructure has the potential to reduce the impact of storm surges.
Some of them include:
- Flood gates
The presence of these barriers can also determine how far a storm surge will eventually go.
Storm Surge Inland Extremes
Occasionally, there are rare instances where specific hurricanes possess distinctive qualities that result in remarkably massive storm surges.
These intense occurrences are frequently linked to a blend of elements, including the:
- Size of storms
- Strength of storms
- Speed of storms
- Coastal characteristics of storms
What are Some Factors Affecting the Reach of Storm Surges?
As mentioned already, you can estimate how far a storm surge is likely to go considering historical events.
However, there are other factors that contribute to its reach.
The intensity of the Hurricane
The magnitude and force of a hurricane or tropical cyclone directly influence the potential elevation of the storm surge.
Stronger storms with reduced central pressures and intensified winds have the potential to produce more substantial surges.
Moreover, storm forward speed has a role to play as well.
Storm Forward Speed
Along the exposed coastline, a swifter storm will result in a greater surge.
Similarly, enclosed bodies of water, including bays, are likely to experience a more pronounced surge when a slower storm occurs.
Fact: It is important to understand that increased wind strength will result in a greater surge.
The Slope and Shape of the Seafloor
The bathymetry, or underwater topography, significantly impacts the magnitude of the storm surge.
Coastlines that are shallow and have a gentle slope can enhance the power of the surge, enabling it to reach deeper into the land.
Angle of Approach
The surge’s reach is influenced by the angle at which the storm approaches the coastline.
When storms hit the shoreline head-on, they can generate more substantial surges than those approaching at an angle.
Certain coastal features have the ability to either facilitate or impede the movement of surges.
It is especially true in the case of:
Narrow inlets or constricted bays might encounter increased surge levels as a result of funneling effects.
An excellent illustration would be the North Carolina coastline, which boasts a multitude of fascinating elements like barrier islands, bays, and rivers.
How Far Inland Can a 20 Foot Storm Surge Go?
A storm surge measuring 20 feet can be extremely dangerous and pose a significant threat to life.
A surge of this magnitude has the potential to cause widespread flooding, inundating coastal regions and extending deep into inland areas.
But, how far inland it goes depends on various factors.
Low-Lying Coastal Areas
In coastal areas close to sea level, a storm surge of 20 feet can potentially flood extensive regions, reaching several miles inland.
Barrier islands and coastal plains that are situated at lower elevations are especially susceptible to significant surge infiltration.
The effects of coastal erosion and the existence of barrier islands can greatly influence surge reach.
Barrier islands serve as a natural shield, absorbing a portion of the surge’s force and safeguarding the mainland.
Fact: In the event that barrier islands are eroded the surge has the potential to infiltrate deeper into the mainland.
Sometimes, a massive storm surge of 20 feet has the ability to travel considerable distances upstream through rivers and inland waterways.
This is particularly true when the storm surge aligns with high tide or when in case the storm connects with local river systems.
Urban Development and Infrastructure
Urban development and infrastructure can affect the extent and effect of a storm surge.
Coastal cities that have large waterfront areas and insufficient flood defenses might face significant flooding caused by surges.
Various Strategies to Control Storm Surge Effects
Storm surges can result in significant damage, and that is why it is important to take steps and have some mitigation strategies in place.
Here is a bit more about different strategies used to tackle these events:
|Warning systems||Accurate and timely storm surge warnings from meteorological agencies help take necessary precautions and evacuate.|
|Evacuation plans||Local authorities create and disseminate comprehensive evacuation plans with clearly indicated evacuation routes and easily accessible shelters.|
|Coastal defenses and infrastructure||Investing in coastal fortification, such as levees and seawalls helps minimize the impact of strong storm surges.|
|Public awareness||Campaigns to raise public awareness and education help people understand the threats posed by storm surges and the significance of being ready for them.|
How far inland can a storm surge go?
Several factors, such as the strength and magnitude of the storm, the geography of the coastline, and more influence the extent of a storm surge.
Nevertheless, massive 20-foot storm surge is an incredibly destructive event that can flood vast coastal regions and even reach far inland, resulting in widespread devastation and posing serious risks to life.