what can the government do to reduce climate change

What can the government do to reduce climate change? Everyone knows we have a role to play in reducing our carbon footprint.

Undoubtedly, every step you take individually will help reduce climate change, but you cannot underestimate the role of the government.

Governments work on a macro level to identify problem areas and take steps to resolve those issues.

But, what can government do to stop climate change?

Governments can take steps to reduce emissions, make policies, offer monetary incentives, support R&D in different sectors, and raise awareness to stop climate change. 

What Can the Government Do to Reduce Climate Change?

So many things need to be done individually and collectively to stop climate change.

Here is what the government can do to mitigate the effects of climate change:

Establish Ambitious Goals for Reducing Emissions

establish ambitious goals for reducing emissions

In order to address climate change, it is crucial for governments across the globe to set ambitious goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

The objectives should be based on the most recent scientific discoveries and thoroughly evaluated with each new set of information.

Consistent updates are crucial because climate science is constantly changing, with an evolving understanding of climate feedback loops and the impact of human activities.

Implementing policies based on ambitious goals is crucial for driving a future that is both sustainable and characterized by low carbon emissions

Allocate Funds toward Sustainable Energy Options

allocate funds toward sustainable energy options

The extensive dependence on fossil fuels worldwide for energy generation has contributed heavily toward climate change.

It plays a major role in releasing greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), which consequently leads to altering global climate patterns.

Governments across the globe contribute to initiating a shift towards sustainable energy systems through their investments in renewable energy sources, specifically focusing on solar and wind power.

As per the data provided by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), renewable energy sources fulfilled approximately 28% of the global electricity demand in 2020. 

By 2050, experts predict that with sufficient funding, this percentage could potentially increase to 86%. 

The Rise of Solar Energy

the rise of solar energy

Solar and wind energy technologies have experienced significant decreases in cost.

Between 2010 and 2019, the price of solar photovoltaic (PV) energy decreased by 82%, establishing it as a viable substitute for fossil fuel-generated electricity in various parts of the world.

According to experts, there is an expectation of a decrease in costs of wind energy ranging from 17% to 35% by 2035 and 37% to 49% by 2050.

These reductions are anticipated to occur due to the development of more efficient wind turbines, as well as improvements in capital and operating expenses. 

The Role of Government in Sustainable Energy

the role of government in sustainable energy

By investing in these sustainable technologies, governments can decrease greenhouse gas emissions and also get other benefits, such as:

  • Energy security
  • The creation of jobs
  • The development of a sustainable economy

Governments have the potential to expedite the shift towards renewable energy by offering:

  • Monetary rewards
  • Encouraging innovation and advancement
  • Eliminating bureaucratic obstacles for projects related to renewable energy

Hence, making the shift towards sustainable energy has to be the most important worldwide approach in the battle against climate change. 

Extend Support for Energy Efficiency Measures

extend support for energy efficiency measures

Adopting energy efficiency measures is an essential action in addressing climate change.

Governments can effectively decrease greenhouse gas emissions by endorsing initiatives such as insulation and energy-efficient appliances.

This in turn leads to a substantial reduction in energy consumption. Consider insulation as an illustration.

Efficiently insulated houses have the potential to decrease the energy needed for heating and cooling by approximately 50-70%.

In terms of household appliances, an energy-efficient refrigerator has the ability to consume 20-50% less energy compared to a traditional model. 

The Role of Governments

the role of governments

Implementing energy efficiency measures can result in economic advantages, such as:

  • Low energy bills
  • More job creations
  • Reduced financial burden of energy imports

Governments have the ability to encourage energy efficiency through:

  • The implementation of regulations and standards
  • Providing financial incentives
  • Educating the public on the advantages it brings 
Fact: Data shows that enhancing energy efficiency in building and industrial processes could result in a reduction of emissions by 40%.  

Implement a Carbon Pricing Mechanism

implement a carbon pricing mechanism

Implementing a carbon pricing system is an effective approach governments can utilize to address the issue of climate change.

Creating a financial disincentive against pollution is achieved by assigning a specific monetary value to the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

This particular economic instrument can appear in the form of:

  • A carbon tax
  • A cap-and-trade mechanism 

A Carbon Tax

A carbon tax system imposes a charge on every instance of greenhouse gas emissions.

This system would raise awareness among businesses and individuals about their carbon footprint, promoting the adoption of cleaner practices. 

A Cap-and-Trade System

a cap-and-trade system

A cap-and-trade system sets a cap on the overall emissions permitted while enabling companies to trade allowances.

This is to motivate them to decrease emissions for economic benefits

The Role of the Government

As of 2021, the World Bank has stated that there are currently 64 carbon pricing initiatives implemented or planned globally.

These initiatives collectively address approximately 21.5% of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced worldwide.

21.5% greenhouse gas emissions

These strategies have demonstrated their effectiveness in decreasing emissions while fostering innovation and the adoption of sustainable energy solutions.

It is recommended that governments utilize the revenue generated from implementing carbon pricing systems to finance renewable energy projects.

This is to assist communities impacted by the changes. 

Advocate the Adoption of Eco-Friendly Transportation Methods

eco-friendly transportation advocacy

Promoting sustainable transportation is a powerful strategy that governments can embrace to decrease greenhouse gas emissions.

Vehicles, particularly those that depend on internal combustion engines, make a substantial contribution to worldwide CO2 emissions.

Encouraging alternative modes of transportation such as walking, cycling, and utilizing public transit helps decrease our reliance on cars. 

The Role of the Government

Governments have the ability to support this transition by allocating funds towards the development of infrastructure such as:

  • Dedicated cycling lanes
  • Pathways that prioritize pedestrians
  • Well-functioning public transportation networks.
functions of the government

Take Copenhagen as an example, a city renowned for its emphasis on cycling, where the number of bicycles surpasses that of cars owing to its well-developed cycling infrastructure.

In addition to these endeavors, it is imperative for governments to promote the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs).

Advocating for electric vehicles (EVs), which generate no emissions from their tailpipes, has the potential to greatly reduce our carbon footprint. 

An Important Consideration

The implementation of carpooling programs and the introduction of low-emission zones in urban areas can also play a role in promoting environmentally-friendly transportation.

Fact: The year 2020 witnessed a remarkable surge in the number of electric vehicles on global highways, surpassing 10 million in total. 

Make Policies to Protect Forests

make policies to protect forests

Forests serve as the respiratory system of our planet, playing a crucial role in the absorption of carbon dioxide, a significant greenhouse gas, and the release of oxygen.

Regrettably, the significant contribution of deforestation and forest degradation to global emissions cannot be ignored. 

The Role of the Government

It is imperative for governments to implement stringent regulations in order to:

  • Safeguard the current forests
  • Address the issue of unauthorized timber harvesting
  • Deter the conversion of forested areas for agricultural or alternative uses

At the same time, it is crucial to invest in programs for reforestation and afforestation.

These efforts help in the development of ‘carbon sinks‘ that have the capacity to absorb a greater amount of CO2 than they emit.

Fact: The act of deforestation, combined with agricultural practices is accountable for approximately 25 percent of the total greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. 

Promote the Advancement of Research and Development

promote the advancement of research and development

Conducting research and development (R&D) on advanced technologies is crucial for addressing and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Governments play a vital role in promoting this innovation, especially in areas such as sustainable energy, energy conservation, and carbon capture and storage (CCS).

Renewable energy technologies have the potential to enhance the efficiency and affordability of clean energy.

Some of them include:

  • Cutting-edge solar panels
  • Wind turbines
  • Storage batteries

Also, investing in energy efficiency technologies, such as intelligent grids and energy-conserving appliances, has the potential to further decrease our total energy consumption. 

The Role of the Government

government's involvement

Governments can accelerate the shift to a low-carbon economy by providing financial support for research and development (R&D).

The assistance can come in different ways, such as:

  • Providing financial support
  • Offering tax benefits
  • Promoting collaborations between educational institutions and businesses

Fostering innovation in these sectors has the potential to not just decrease emissions, but also generate employment opportunities and drive economic expansion.

Fact: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is gaining recognition as a feasible choice to decrease atmospheric CO2 levels, which is crucial for addressing global warming. 

Raise Awareness

Governments play a crucial role in promoting public awareness of climate change and its repercussions, alongside implementing policy measures.

Educational campaigns can be initiated to emphasize the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

raise awareness

It may also provide information on how individual efforts can make a difference in addressing this issue.

By transforming intricate scientific information into easily understandable and relatable messages, they have the ability to cultivate an educated and engaged population. 


What can the government do to reduce climate change? In order to address the climate crisis, it is essential for everyone to come together and work collaboratively.

By encouraging consciousness and enabling sustainable options, governments have the ability to inspire individuals to engage in this worldwide undertaking, guaranteeing a more robust and secure planet for future generations.